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Sinharaja National Park

Basic ecotouristic information on Sinharaja National Park (Sri Lanka) which can be visited together with Albatros Travel and Expeditions - localization, access, characteristic, fauna and flora, possible activities.


Národní park Sinharaja

Localization

South West of Sri Lanka

Access

Easy

Characteristic

88,6 km2; Hilly to mountainous area lying on the southern edge of the Central Highlands - height range of 270 to 1,060 meters. Series of parallel strike ridges valleys with rivers rich of water and lots of waterfalls.Typical ecosystems: tropical lowland rain forest (unique in Sri Lanka). Annual rainfall range of 3,000 to 6,000 millimeters. High percentage of endemism of both - plants and animals species

Fauna + Flora

Mammals:

Sinharaja fauna

Insectivores - Shrews (Soricidae): Horsefield's Shrew; House Shrew (endemic species); Sri Lanka Long-tailed Shrew (endemic species)

Bats - Fruit Bats (Pteropidae): Gretar Short-nosed Fruit Bat

- True Bats (Vespertilionidae): Kelaart's Pipistrel Bat; Painted Bat

- Horseshoebats (Rhinolophidae): Rufous Horse-shoe Bat; Wooly Horse-shoe Bat

- Hipposideridae:  Indian Rond-leaf Bat

- Vampyr Bats (Megadermatidae): Lesser False Vampire Bat

Primates - Old World Monkeys (Cercopithecidae): Toque Macque; Purple-faced Leaf Monkey

Pholidota - Pangolins (Manidae): Indian Pangolin

Rodents - Mice (Muridae): Field Mouse; Greater Bandicoot Rat; Spiny Rat; Sri Lanka Bi-coloured Rat (endemic genus)

- Squirrels (Sciuridae): Travancore Flying Squirrel; Western Giant Squirrel; Dusky-striped Jungle Squirrel; Flame-striped Jungle Squirrel

- Old World Porcupines (Hystricidae): Indian Crested Porcupine

Carnivores - Mustelidae: Eurasian Otter

- Dogs (Canidae): Golden Jackal

- Civets (Viverridae): Golden-palm Civet (endemic species); Ringed-tail Civet

- Mongoose (Herpestidae): Brown Mongoose; Stripe-necked Mongoose

- Cats (Felidae): Fishing Cat; Rusty-spotted Cat; Leopard

Elephants - Elephants (Elephantidae): Asian Elephant

Even-toed ungulates - Pigs (Suidae): Wild Boar

- Mouse Deers (Tragulidae): Mouse Deer

- Deers (Cervidae): Barking Deer; Sambar Deer

Birds:

Sinharaja fauna

Birds of Prey - Hawks, Eagles, Buzzards, Kites and Old World Vultures (Accipitridae): Black Eagle; Crested Goshawk; Mountain Hawk-Eagle; Crested Serpent-Eagle

Galliformes - Partridges, Pheasants and Quails (Phasianidae): Sri Lanka Junglefowl; Sri Lanka Spurfowl

Columbiformes - Pigeons and Doves (Columbidae): Emerald Dove

Psittaciformes - Parrots (Psittacidae): Ceylon Hanging Parrot; Layard's Parakeet

Cuculiformes - Cuckoos, Anis, Coucals and Roadrunners (Cuculidae): Green-billed Coucal; Chestnut-winged Cuckoo; Red-faced Malkoha

Trogoniformes - Trogons (Trogonidae): Malabar Trogon

Coraciiformes - Rollers (Coraciidae): Dollarbird

Piciformes - Barbets (Capitonidae): Yellow-fronted Barbet

- Woodpeckers, Wrynecks and Piculets (Picidae): Greater Flamebeck; Lesser Yellownape

Perching Birds - Crows and Jays (Corvidae): Ceylon Blue Magpie

- Shrikes (Laniidae): Brown Shrike

- Drongos (Dicruridae): Crested Drongo; Greater Racket-tailed Drongo; White-bellied Drongo

- Trushes and Chats (Turdidae): Spotted-winged Thrush

- Starlings (Sturnidae): Sri Lanka Grackle; White-faced Starling

- Cuckoo Shrikes and Minivets (Campephagidae): Black-headed Cuckoo Shrike; Scarlet Minivet; Bar-winged Flycatcher Shrike

- Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae): Black-crested Bulbul; Madagascar Bulbul; Yellow-browed Bulbul

- Leafbirds (Chloropseidae): Golden-fronted Leafbird

- Ioras (Aegithinidae): Common Iora

- Tits and Chickadees (Paridae): Great Tit

- Nuthatches (Sittidae):  Velvet-fronted Nuthatch

- Sunbirds (Nectariniidae): Purple-rumped Sunbird

- Flowerpeckers (Dicaeidae): Pale-billed FlowerpeckerWhite-throated Flowerpecker

- White-eyes (Zosteropidae): Sri Lanka White-eye

- Babblers (Timaliidae): Black-headed Babbler; Brown-capped Babbler; Orange-billed Babbler; Ashy-headed Laughingtrush; Indian Scimitar-Babbler

- Paradise Flycatchers (Monarchidae): Asian Paradise Flycatcher

- Old World Flycatchers (Muscicapidae): Dull-blue Flycatcher

- Old World Warblers (Sylviidae): Large-billed Laef-Warbler; Greenish Warbler

- Old World Orioles (Oriolidae): Black-hooded Oriole

- Waxbills, Mannikins, Munias and allied (Estrildidae): White-rumped Munia

 Reptiles:

Lizards and Snakes - Agamas (Agamidae): Calotes liolepis;Ceratophora aspera;Common Green Forest Lizard

- Skinks (Scincidae): Bronzegreen Little Skink Mabuya macularia; Common Skink Mabuya carinata; Nessia burtoni; Sphenomorphus taprobanensis

- Geckoes (Gekkonidae): Cnemaspis kandianus; Gymnodactylus frenatus

- Monitors (Varanidae):Common Water Monitor

- Shield-tailed Snakes (Uropeltidae): Rhinophis tricolorata

- Asian Pipe Snakes (Cylindrophiidae): Cylindrophis maculatus

- Boas, Pythons (Boidae):Indian Python

- Colubrids (Colubridae): Aspidura drummondhayi; Balanophis ceylonensis; Boiga barnesii; Cercaspis carinatus; Chysopelea ornata; Dendrelaphis caudolineatus; Dryophis pulverulentus; Haplocercus ceylonensis; Long-nosed Tree Snake Ahaetulla nasuta; Oligodon calamarius and O. sublinensis; Xenochrophis asperrimus

Elapidae:  Bungarus ceylonicus; Indian Cobra Naja naja

- Vipers (Viperidae): Hump Nosed Viper Hypnale hypnale and H. walli; Green Pit Viper Trimeresurus trigonocephalus; Russell´s Viper Daboia ruselli

Amphibians:

Caecilian - Caecilliidae:  Ichthyophys glutinosus

Frogs - Microhylidae: Ramanella palmata

- Rhacophoridae: Philautus nasutus, Ph. schmardanus and Ph. variabilis; Rhacophorus cruciger, R. microtympanum and R. nasutus

- Frogs (Ranidae): frogs Rana aurantiaca, R. corrugata, R. gracilis and R. greeni

- Dicroglossidae: Nannophrys guentheri

- Toads (Bufonidae): Gold Toad Bufo melanostictus; Bufo kelaartii

Fish:

Cypriniformes - Minnows and Carps (Cyprinidae): Black Ruby Barb Barbus nigrofasciatus; Cherry Barb Barbus titeya; Garra lamata

- Loaches (Cobitidae):  Neomachilus notostigma

Perch-likes - Gouramies and allies (Osphronemidae): Combtail Belontia signata

- Gobies (Gobiidae): Red-tail Goby Sicydium halei

- Snakeheads (Channidae): Smooth-breasted Snakehead Channa orientalis

Insects:

Butterflies - Swallowtails and Apollos (Papilionidae): Helena Birdwing Troides helena; Graphium antiphates; Red Helen Papilio helenus; Blue Mormon Papilio polymnestor; Common Mormon Papilio polytes; Common Banded Peacock Papilio crino; Ceylon Rose Atrophaneura jophon

- Brushfoots (Nymphalidae): Common Bushbrown Mycalesis perseus; Common Egfly Hypolimnas bolina; Clipper Parthenos sylvia; Danaus aglea; Euploea sp.; Euthalia evelina; Kallima philarchus; Sri Lanka Tree Nymph Idea lynceus

 

Plants:

Sinharaja flora

211 species of trees and lianas

Ferns:

Polypodiales - Lidsaeaceae: Lindsaea caudata and L. repens (rare species)

Dicotyledons:

Magnoliales - Myristicaceae: Nutmeg Myristica dactyloides

- Annonaceae: Xylopia championii

Laurales - Monimiaceae: Hortonia spp. (endemic genus)

Ranunculales - Menispermaceae: Weniwal Coscinium fenestratum

Malvales - Bombacaceae: Cullenia rosayroana

- Dipterocarpaceae:  Dipterocarpus bispidus and D. zeylanicus (dominant canopy trees on lower slopes); Shorea affinis, S. congestiflora, S. disticha, S. megistophylla S. trapezifolia and S. worthingtoni (dominant canopy trees on middle slopes); Stemonoporus spp. (endmic genus)

Malpighiales - Clusiaceae: Calophyllum trapezifolium; Garcinia hermonii; Mesua ferrea and M. nagassarium (dominant canopy trees on middle slopes)

Euphorbiaceae: Aporusa lanceolata; Chaetocarpus castanocarpus; Podadeniya spp. (endemic genus)

- Flacourtiaceae:  Trichadenia sp. (endemic genus)

Sapindales - Sapindaceae: Glenniea spp. (endemic genus)

- Rutaceae: Atalantia rotundifolia

- Burseraceae:  Scutinanthe spp. (endemic genus)

- Meliaceae: Pseudacarapa spp. (endemic genus)

Myrtales - Myrtaceae: Syzygium rubicundum

- Melastomataceae: Lijndenia capitellata

Ericales - Sapotaceae: Palaquium petiolare

Gentianales - Gentianaceae: Exacum trinervium (rare species)

- Rubiaceae: Gaertnera vaginans; Lasianthus oliganthus; Leucodon spp. (endemic genus); Psychotria nigra and P. sarmentosa; Schizostigma spp. (endemic genus)

Lamiales - Gesneriaceae: Championea spp. (endemic genus) 

Cucurbitales - Anisophylleaceae:  Anisophyllea cinnamomoides

Piperales - Piperaceae: pepper Piper argyophyllum

- Aristolochiaceae:  Apama siliquosa

Monocotyledons:

Arecales - Arecaceae: Loxococcus spp. (endemic genus); Jaggery Palm Caryota urens

Poales - Grasses (Poaceae): Lophtherum zeylanicum

- Cyperaceae: sedge Carex indica

Asparagales - orchids (Orchidaceae): Anoectochilus setaceus (rare species); Dendrobium macarthiae (rare species)

Zingiberales - Zingiberaceae: Cardamom Elettaria ensal; Cyphostigma spp. (endemic genus)

Possible activitiesNárodní park Sinharaja

Birdwatching and butterfly watching.

Excellent conditions for rain forest trekking and climbimg some mountain tops.

Note

World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Best time to visit XII-IV.

Be aware of leeches!

Picture - source wikipedia

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